full-genomes-review

Full Genomes review – A genome sequencing option to suit every pocket?

Rating based on our Full Genomes review

7 facts from our Full Genomes review

Here are the main points covered in our Full Genomes review:

  1. Location: Maryland, USA
  2. Services: whole genome sequencing and Y chromosome sequencing; analysis of third-party data
  3. Reports: basic health reports; data must be analyzed with third-party software
  4. Result delivery: download of raw DNA data from the Full Genomes website
  5. Privacy: data is deleted upon request
  6. Cost: ranges from $15 to identify a single SNP to $2900 for linked-read whole genome sequencing; no free analysis options
  7. Alternatives: Nebula Genomics ($299 for 30x Whole Genome Sequencing), Veritas Genetics ($599), Sano Genetics (~ $1100) and Dante Labs (starting at $599)

Introduction to Full Genomes

Full Genomes is a DNA testing company that specializes in full genetic mapping in order to provide individuals with detailed information about their ancestry and health. The company is headquartered in Rockville, Maryland, USA, where they were founded in 2012 by several scientists. Full Genomes is focused on two things. The first is on whole genome sequencing. The second is Y chromosome sequencing for men. Because only men carry this chromosome, only men can use this service. Most of the Full Genomes services involve the identification of genetic variants that are associated with specific health outcomes. Additionally, some of their services allow you to reconstruct your family tree, particularly for paternal ancestry if you are a man. Read more in our Full Genomes review!

Full Genomes services and products

  • Whole Genome Sequencing and Analysis
    • One of this company’s biggest draws is that it offers whole genome sequencing. Full Genomes offers several different tiers of their whole genome sequencing service that are largely determined by the ‘coverage’. Coverage, in this context, refers to how accurate the sequencing results are. For example, a 20x coverage will produce more accurate results than 10x coverage. 
      • Whole genome analysis ($75) – If you have already had your DNA sequenced, you can upload your raw data to get it analyzed.
      • Whole Genome Sequence 15x ($645), 20x ($825) or 30x ($1150) coverage.
      • Long Read Whole Chromosome ($2900) – Full Genomes’ most comprehensive genetic test uses linked-reads to facilitate the discovery of large structural rearrangements in the genome.
  • Y chromosome sequencing and analysis
    • The sequencing of the Y chromosome is available for males who want to reconstruct their paternal phylogenetic tree.
      • Analysis of Y BAM files ($50) – If you already have a Y BAM file, you can upload it and get the analysis of your paternal ancestry.
      • Y Elite Ancestry Test for Men ($425) – This is a Y chromosome sequencing service. With this package, you can connect to other people around the world who share your paternal lineage.
  • Additional services
    • In addition to the services described above, Full Genomes offers several other services for those people who already have their DNA sequence information.
      • Single SNP Test ($15) – This service is for individuals who just want to upload their genetic data to look for a single, specific genetic variant.
      • Whole genome GRCh38 alignment ($75) – If you have a FASTQ file or a  GRCh37 BAM file, Full Genomes can generate the latest GRCh38 version.
      • Forensic SNP Imputation ($100) – This service allows you to upload your genetic data in order to compare it against the Full Genomes database to determine if you have any relatives within their database.
      • Exome Sequencing ($525) – The exome (about 1% of your genome) refers to the pieces of your DNA the code for proteins. This is where most disease-related mutations are thought to occur.

How to use Full Genomes

After you choose the DNA testing product that is right for you, Full Genomes will send you a DNA sample collection kit. Typically, Full Genomes request a saliva sample. Sometimes, upon further request, Full Genomes may accept blood samples or cheek swabs. For the services that do not include DNA testing, you can just upload your raw DNA data.

Review of Full Genomes services

Let’s say, for instance, that you purchase the 30x Whole Genome Sequencing service for $1150. After you send in your saliva sample, you will have to wait a few weeks. 

When your sample has been sequenced, you will receive an email that informs you that your genetic information is available for download. You will then be able to download your BAM and “Interpretation of Results” files. The files provided by Full Genomes also include mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) files, and if you are male, Y chromosome files.

Next, you will have to interpret your results. This can be a bit tricky because Full Genomes provides you your raw DNA data but nor much reporting or genetic counselors. However, Full Genomes has great customer support to help you make sense of the files they do provide. 

If your package includes ancestry analysis, the company also loads your information into their database to help you find your relatives. 

If your package included a Y chromosome analysis, you will also get specific information about your paternal haplogroup (the population that your most recent paternal ancestors are related to). Your haplogroup information is found in a text file. From there you need to use a third-party website to find out where your haplogroup has its geographic origins.

Example of haplogroup data provided by Full Genomes. This particular haplogroup, according to the ISOGG tree website, has its roots in North Africa.
Example of haplogroup data provided by Full Genomes. This particular haplogroup, according to the ISOGG tree website, has its roots in North Africa.

Also included with the Y chromosome sequencing and analysis service is information related to SNPs shared by your paternal ancestors.

Example of Y chromosome data provided by Full Genomes.
Example of Y chromosome data provided by Full Genomes.

One of the trickiest parts of using Full Genomes is analyzing and understanding your results. Some files related to your whole genome sequence can be opened simply using your web browser or Microsoft Excel, but it still will be difficult to understand without a significant investment of time and effort. 

To really make sense of the files Full Genomes provides, you will need to use additional third-party software such as Promethease

One Full Genomes user’s results in Promethease.
One Full Genomes user’s results in Promethease.

In short, a Full Genomes test may provide comprehensive whole genome sequencing testing and results. However, their services fall somewhat short on the analysis and interpretation of this data when it is made available to you on their website. Be prepared to use other products or services, such as Nebula Genomics. 

Full Genomes Privacy and Data

According to Full Genomes Terms of Service, the customer reserves the right to request that their account be closed and their information removed from all databases.

Full Genomes in the news

According to one online report, Full Genomes was the first company to offer sequencing of the Y chromosome in January of 2013. 

Full Genomes reviews

Full Genomes are well-rated by consumers. For example, on DNAtestingchoice.com, the editor reviewed Full Genomes at 4 out of 5 stars. The customer service is rated at 5 out of 5 stars by the editor, while the clarity of results and value for money are both rated at 3 out of 5 stars. Customer Full Genomes reviews have an average rating of 4.5 out of 5 stars.

What do consumer tests have to say about Full Genomes? Here is an example of a Full Genomes review:

“I have just received my Y Elite 2.1 results early this morning and after getting the whole files ready to be studied I am sincerely impressed by the quality of their job. A few days ago I tested the Long Read WGS with them and now I know that I was right when I decided to test again with them. They are the best in their job.”

Full Genomes Pros/Cons

ProsCons
Full access to raw DNA data providedLittle information on each service provided on the company’s website
Option to delete personal dataNo user-friendly reporting
Reviews suggest good customer support availableFull Genomes cost can be high

Nebula Genomics

We finish our Full Genomes review with a comparison to Nebula Genomics and other DNA testing services. Furthermore, while Full Genomes may have been the first to offer full genome sequencing under $1,000, at Nebula Genomics you can get 30x Whole-Genome Sequencing services done for only $299. Compare this to Full Genomes’ 30x whole-genome service package which is $1150! We also provide extensive reporting that is updated every week, tools yo explore your DNA data, and deep ancestry analysis in collaboration with FamilyTreeDNA (FTDNA).

Here we compare FullGenomes.com with three other DNA sequencing services, 23andMe, AncestryDNA, and Nebula Genomics. 


Full Genomes23andMeAncestryDNANebula Genomics
DNA testing methodWhole-genome sequencingMicroarray-based genotypingMicroarray-based genotypingWhole-genome sequencing
Focus on privacyNoNoNoYes (learn more)
Security technology usedUnspecifiedSSL for data transferUnspecifiedBlockchain, privacy-preserving computing
Data upload optionsYesNoNoYes
Tools to explore dataLimitedLimitedLimitedYes (learn more)
Ancestry reportingYes YesYesDeep ancestry reporting with full Y chromosome and mtDNA sequencing in collaboration with FTDNA.
Cost$15 to $2900$99, $199, or $499$99 or $149$0 to $299

Comparison of Full Genomes, 23andMe, AncestryDNA, and Nebula Genomics

Other whole genome sequencing companies that you should consider are Veritas Genetics, Sano Genetics, and Dante Labs. Did you like our Full Genomes review? You can find more reviews here!

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